Taking time in the planning phase of building a koi pond is crucial to the pond’s success. It is essential to carefully consider where you build it. Think about how many hours of direct sun the site gets, how much shade the site receives from nearby trees or walls, and how visible the site is from your house.
It is better not to build a koi pond in full sun. Koi ponds should be built in a shady area of the garden. Koi fish can only tolerate 5 to 6 hours of direct sunlight per day. They need shade to survive. Too much sunlight will heat the water during summer and cause algae to grow faster.
Choosing the right spot for your koi pond is vital to the health of the fish and will make maintaining the pond easier for you. This article discusses why building a koi pond in full sun is not a good idea and what to do if you have an existing koi pond in full sun.
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The Conditions Koi Fish Need To Survive In A Pond
Koi fish need a pond large enough to accommodate them as they grow. The pond should hold at least 500 gallons and be deep enough to protect them from predators – 4 to 8 feet.
Koi fish thrive in cooler water, around 60 to 70°F. The temperature of the water affects the water quality. Warmer water holds less oxygen for the fish to breathe, and they are more prone to diseases and infections in low-oxygen conditions.
One crucial thing that koi fish need is shade. They are more relaxed when they have cover from predators and are sensitive to sunlight. Koi can only handle about 5 or 6 hours of direct sun per day. More than this, their health suffers.
Can A Koi Pond Be In Full Sun?
A koi pond should not be built in full sun. It is better to build a koi pond in an area that gets partial sun or full shade throughout the day.
The problem with having a koi pond in full sun is that the direct sunlight in the day’s heat will warm the water up during summer, affecting your koi fish’s health.
Koi fish feel more exposed in a pond that is in full sun. They need some shade and cover from predators to make them feel relaxed and swim around so that you can see them.
Another problem with having a koi pond in full sun is algal growth. Algae photosynthesizes to feed itself, so the more sunlight it gets during the day, the faster it will grow.
Algal blooms can be devastating for koi ponds. Too much algae decrease the amount of oxygen in the water.
How Hot Is Too Hot For A Koi Pond?
Koi fish are happiest in water temperatures of 60 to 70°F. At a push, they can survive in 90°F water, but ideally, you never want your pond’s water to heat up that much.
Having a deep pond is beneficial because the sun only heats the top few feet of water during the day. Fish need to retreat to the cool depths during hot summer days.
How To Create Shade For A Koi Pond
We do not always have the benefit of choosing where our koi pond goes. What should one do if you move into a new house with a koi pond in full sunlight?
Growing water lilies and lotus in the koi pond creates shade for the fish. Water lilies and lotus have large, flat leaves that shade the water’s surface. If around 70% of the pond’s surface is covered in water lilies or lotus, the fish will be happy.
It would be best if you grew other aquatic plants around the pond’s margin that will cast shade on the water’s surface. Water iris, pitcher plants, giant Brazilian rhubarb, rushes, and cattails are great for growing near a koi pond.
Trees are great for shading a koi pond, but not directly above the pond. Leaves and debris falling into the pond will be a maintenance nightmare.
It is better to have evergreen trees surrounding a koi pond because they do not shed their leaves during winter like deciduous species. Ensure about 100 feet between your koi pond and the closest deciduous tree.
You can build a pergola over an exposed koi pond. Growing climbing plants up the structure will shade the pond over time and create a beautiful space in the garden.
Add some boulders or a decorative bridge to the edges of your koi pond to provide them with some extra shade.
How to Protect Koi Fish During The Summer Heat
If your koi pond is in full sun or gets direct sun during the hottest part of the day, worry not! There are ways you can make your koi fish’s lives more bearable.
– Install a pump to circulate the pond water. A small pond needs a 3000gallon/hour pump. Circulating the water will keep the temperature down.
– Keep the pond free of debris. In warm temperatures, vegetation quickly decays, releasing ammonia into the water. Very high levels of ammonia are toxic to fish.
– Regularly do a partial water change of 10 to 20% during the summer, adding some cold water to your koi pond.
If you already have a koi pond built in an area with direct sun all day, you can do things to make it work. But ideally, you never want a koi pond to be in full sun.
Choose a partly sunny or fully shaded area of your garden to build a koi pond. Ensure there is shade from walls, boulders, aquatic plants, and trees. Be careful of having trees too close to the pond, or you will constantly be clearing fallen leaves and debris from the pond.